Slide background
Mersin Üniversitesi

  Mutlu Yalvaç
users.ozgecmis
:
Department
:
Faculty of Engineering .
BIRTH DATE
:
11 March 1969 .
Business Address
:
Mersin Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Çiftlikköy Kampüsü 33343 Yenişehir/ Mersin .
Phone
:
+90-324-3610001 .
Internal
:
7100 .
Fax
:
+90-324-3610032 .
Created
:
2015-06-12 09:19:12 .
Last Modification
:
2018-12-24 13:54:34 .
Researcher ID :
Scopus ID :
Orcid ID :
Scholar ID :
h-index :
1
Publons ID :
Point :

Degree Department/Program Institute Year
- - - 1992
- - - 1997
- - - 2005
Doctorate Thesis

1. INVESTIGATION OF ENDOSULFAN AND METHAMİDOPHOS RESIDUAL LEVELS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM in GÖKSU DELTA , Supervisor: Dr. Fadime Taner, Mersin University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Environmental Engineering Department, MERSİN, Turkey, .

Master Thesis

1. Determination of Drinking Water Quality and Assesment of Pollution Level in Use Water Around Mersin Province and Development of Model System, Supervisor: Dr. Halil Kumbur, Mersin University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Environmental Engineering Department, MERSİN, Turkey, .

Title Institute Year
VICE CHAIR MEU ENGINEERING FACULTY ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 2013-06-02 - 2013-12-31
users.gorevturu users.gorevsirket Year
YONETICI GREENTECH ARITMA MUH. DAN. INS. SAN. VE TIC. LTD. STI 2019-02-02 - 2019-12-10
YONETICI GREENTECH ARITMA MUH. DAN. INS. SAN. VE TIC. LTD. STI 2018-12-12 - 2019-02-01
YONETICI GREENTECH ARITMA MUH. DAN.INS.TIC.A.S. 2017-11-20 - 2018-11-20
International - SCI/SCI-Expanded category 3850
2019
6. Yalvaç, M.; Günaydın, S.; Saleh, M.; Yaylacı ödün, D. . JOURNAL OF MATERIAL CYCLES AND WASTE MANAGEMENT, 2019, , -. 950 + 0
10.1007/s10163-018-00824-y

5. Saleh, M.; Yalvaç, M.; Arslan, H. . KARBALA INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN SCIENCE, 2019, 5, 54-63. 1000 + 0
10.33640/2405-609X.1017

4. Savcı, S.; Yalvaç, M.; Karaman, Z.; Deniz, F.; Mazmancı, M. Removal of reactive Red 45 using atermit factory solid wastes by adsorption. FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN, 2019, 28, 1724-1732. 800 + 0
https://www.prt-parlar.de/

Publications_006.pdf

2018
3. Ozay, Y.; Unsar, E.; Isik, Z.; Yilmaz, F.; Dizge, N.; Perendeci, N.; Mazmanci, M.; Yalvac, M. Optimization of electrocoagulation process and combination of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of pistachio processing wastewater. ELSEVIER BV, 2018, 1, 1-02. 100 + 0
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.242

Publications_008.pdf

2012
2. Yalvaç, M.; Taner, F. RESIDUAL ENDOSULFAN CONCENTRATIONS IN SOME FISH SPECIES OF GÖKSU DELTA, NORTH-EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN. FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN, 2012, 21, 1259-1266. 1000 + 0
Publications_002.pdf

2002
1. Tanık, A. Fate of pesticides in soil in a coastal lagoon area and associated water quality impacts. WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY , 2002, 45, 111-120. 0 + 0
International - Covered by Other International Indexes 330
2018
2. Savcı, S.; Yalvaç, M.; Karaman, Z. ADSORPTION OF REMAZOL BRILLANT BLUE R FROM AQUATIC SOLUTION USING NATURAL ADSORBENT (Pistachio Hull) . ECOLOGICAL LIFE SCIENCES, 2018, 13, 103-113. 200 + 0
http://dx.doi.org/10.12739/NWSA.2018.13.2.5A0099

Publications_005.pdf

2017
1. Kayaalp, .; Savcı , S.; Coskun, .; Yalvaç, M. Adsorption of Methylene Blue From Aqueous Solution with Vermicompost Produced Using Banana Peel. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN ENGINEERING RESEARCH (IJMER), 2017, 7, 64-73. 130 + 0
National - Covered by ULAKBIM 1290
2019
7. Saleh, M.; Yalvaç, M.; Sime, F.; Mazmancı, M. . TURKISH JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, 2019, 3, 1-10. 170 + 0
10.31127/tuje.451173

2017
6. Savcı, S.; Karaman, Z.; Yalvaç, M. Investigation of the Effective Removal of Reactive Red 45 on Pistachio Solid Wastes. CUKUROVA UNIVERSITESI MUHENDISLIK MIMARLIK FAKULTESI DERGISI, 2017, 32(4), 175-184. 200 + 0
Publications_003.pdf

2015
5. Yalvaç, M.; Sadioğlu kalaycı, F.; Kalaycı, H. Mersin Province Elementary and Secondary Schools in the Source Separation of Solid Waste, Collection and Cost Account. IGDIR UNIVERSITESI FEN BILIMLERI ENSTITUSU DERGISI , 2015, 5(1), 29-35. 200 + 0
2007
4. Yalvaç, M.; Deveci, E. . TURK SUCUL YASAM DERGISI, 2007, 5, 584-595. 200 + 0
2004
3. Yalvaç, M.; Avcı, E.; Taner, F. . TURK SUCUL YASAM DERGISI, 2004, 2, 424-432. 200 + 0
2003
2. Zeren, O.; Uysal, Y.; Yalvaç, M.; Arslan, H. . EKOLOJI-CEVRE DERGISI, 2003, 12, 23-26. 150 + 0
2002
1. Zeren, O.; Yalvaç, M.; Arslan, H.; Uysal, Y. . EKOLOJI-CEVRE DERGISI, 2002, 42, 30-35. 170 + 0
International - Full text - Oral 1000

5. SALEH, M.; YALVAÇ, M.; SİME, F., RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODEL FOR MERSIN UNIVERSITY CAMPUS, MERSIN. IV. International Water Congress, 2017-11-02, 2017-11-04, izmir, Turkey, 2017. 200

4. SAVCI, S.; KAYAALP, H.; YALVAÇ, M., Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aquatic Solution on Vermicompost: Green Engineering Approach. Ecology Symposium 2017, 2017-05-11, 2017-05-13, Kayseri, Turkey, 2017. 200

3. YALVAÇ, M.; SAVCI, S.; KARAMAN, Z., Kinetic Studies of Remazol Brillant Blue R Biosorption onto Pistachio Hull: Ecological Engineering Approach. Ecology Symposium 2017, 2017-05-11, 2017-05-13, Kayseri, Turkey, 2017. 200

2. Karaman, Z.; Yalvaç, M., The Waste Water Treatment System Design That Will Be Accumulated in the Exit Water Source and Renewed. International Conference on Natural Science and Engineering (ICNASE’16), 2016-03-19, 2016-03-20, Kilis, Turkey, 2016. 200

1. YALVAÇ, M.; GÜNAYDIN, S., Esenyurt Model in Utilization of Packing Wastes. International Conference on Natural Science and Engineering (ICNASE’16), 2016-03-19, 2016-03-20, Kilis, Turkey, 2016. 200

International - Full text - Poster 100

1. ARSLAN, H.; MAZMANCI, M.; YALVAÇ, M., Investigation of the Evaporation Effect in Reducing Olive Oil Industrial Wastewater. Çevre Koruma ve Biyolojik Çeşitlilik XIII. Uluslararası Katılımlı Ekoloji ve Çevre Kongresi, 2017-09-12, 2017-09-15, Edirne, Turkey, 2017. 100

International - Abstract - Oral 290

3. SAVCI, S.; YALVAÇ, M.; KARAMAN, Z., REMAVOL OF REMAZOL BRILLIANT BLUE R (RBBR) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING NATURAL ADSORBENT (PISTACHIO HULL). I. International Scientific and Vocational Studies Congress , 2017-10-05, 2017-10-08, Nevşehir, Turkey, 2017. 100

2. YALVAÇ, M.; IŞIK, Z.; KARAMAN, Z.; SAVCI, S., INVESTIGATION OF VERMICOMPOST PRODUCTION CONDITIONS FROM SOLID WASTE OF WOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIAL. Çevre Koruma ve Biyolojik Çeşitlilik XIII. Uluslararası Katılımlı Ekoloji ve Çevre Kongresi, 2017-09-12, 2017-09-15, Edirne, Turkey, 2017. 95

1. YALVAÇ, M.; KARAMAN, Z.; SAVCI, S.; IŞIK, Z., Mersin University Çiftlikköy Campus Solid Waste Characterization. Çevre Koruma ve Biyolojik Çeşitlilik XIII. Uluslararası Katılımlı Ekoloji ve Çevre Kongresi, 2017-09-12, 2017-09-15, Edirne, Turkey, 2017. 95

National - Abstract - Oral 52

2. IŞIK, Z.; ÖZAY, Y.; DİZGE, N.; YALVAÇ, M.; MAZMANCI, M., Antep fıstığı işleme tesisi atıksularının elektrooksidasyon prosesi ile arıtım performansının incelenmesi. 12. Ulusal Çevre Mühendisliği Kongresi, 2017-10-05, 2017-10-07, Ankara, Turkey, 2017. 30

1. IŞIK, Z.; ÖZAY, Y.; BİLİCİ, Z.; DİZGE, N.; YALVAÇ, M.; MAZMANCI, M., Antep fıstığı işleme tesisi atıksularının membran prosesler ile arıtım performansının incelenmesi. V. Ulusal Membran Teknolojileri ve Uygulamaları Sempozyumu (MEMTEK2017), 2017-09-21, 2017-09-23, Kocaeli, Turkey, 2017. 22

National - Manager 400

4. Electrochemical Oxidation of Acetaminophen and Metformin Investigation of Oxidation Products, BAP, Project Number: 2017-2-TP2-2563, 10930 TL, Manager, Continue... 100

3. Investigation of the use of solid wastes from pistachio processing industry for dye adsorption, BAP, Project Number: 2017-2-TP2-2526, 10770 TL, Manager, Continue... 100

2. Organic wastes of Mersin University Çiftlikköy Campus usage in Vermicompost production, BAP, Project Number: 2017-2-AP5-2379, 35000 TL, Manager, 2019,Completed. 100

1. Pistachio of solid waste For use in the production of vermicompost, BAP, Project Number: 2017-1-TP1-2097, 1000 TL, Manager, 2017,Completed. 100

National - Researcher 100

4. Investigation of the Treatment Performance Pistachio Processing Wastewater with Electrooxidation and Membrane Methods, BAP, Project Number: 2017-1-AP4-2212, 19000 TL, Researcher, Continue... 50

3. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Laboratory Establishment, BAP, Project Number: 2017-2-AP5-2315, 54000 TL, Researcher, 2017,Completed. 50

2. Determination of Accumulation Levels of Pesticides Used in Göksu Delta in Water, Fish and the Region and Investigation of Genotoxic Effects Due to Food Chain by Molecular and Cytogenetic Techniques, DPT, Project Number: DPT 2002K120460CB, 0 TL, Researcher, 2005,Completed. 0

1. Investigation of Toxic Element Levels in Vegetables, Fruits and Marine Products Consumed in Icel (Mersin) Region, DPT, Project Number: 95 K 1204060, 0 TL, Researcher, 1998,Completed. 0

Supervised Undergraduate Theses 0

1. Gizem AYDIN - Fatma GÖZÜBÜYÜK - Ceren ÇETİN Gizem AYDIN - Fatma GÖZÜBÜYÜK - Ceren ÇETİN, Pistachio of solid waste For use in the production of vermicompost, Others, Mersin University, Completed. 0

Supervised Master Theses 1000

5. Fatma Sadioğlu Kalayci, ., Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Mersin University, Continue. 200

4. Halil Kalayci, , Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Mersin University, Continue. 200

3. SELEN GÜNAYDIN, ESENYURT MODEL IN UTILIZATION OF PACKING WASTES, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Mersin University, Completed. 200

2. Zeynep Karaman, ., Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Mersin University, 2018, Completed. 200
Supervised_Master_Theses_001.pdf

1. Duygu Yaylacı Ödün, THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEASONAL SOLID WASTE DEPENDING SOCIO ECONOMICAL CONDITIONS IN MANUCIPALITY OF ISKENDERUN, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Mersin University, 2016, Completed. 200

National Journal [Year, Count] 3
1. PAJES , [ 2016 : 2 ] [ 2017 : 1 ] . 3
Term C.Code Course Faculty/College/Institute Department/Program T-A-C
Fall ÇM313 Environmental Health Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Fall ÇM 215 Green Engineering Applications Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Fall İNŞ 405 Water Supply and Waste Water Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering 1-2-2
Fall İNŞ 311 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering 2-2-3
Fall ÇM 305 Hydraulic Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 3-0-3
Fall CM431 Graduation Project I Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Fall ÇM 215 Green Engineering Applications Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Fall ÇEV 525 Solid Waste Assessment Technologies Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 3-0-3
Fall FBE 506 Scientific Ethics Institute of Science Institute of Science 2-0-0
Fall ÇEV 802 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Fall ÇEV 801 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Term C.Code Course Faculty/College/Institute Department/Program T-A-C
Spring CM438 Graduation Project II Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Spring ÇM332 Water Supply and Sewage Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-4-3
Spring CM326 Air Pollution and Aerosols Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Spring ÇM226 Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-2-3
Spring İNŞ 340 Hydraulics Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering 3-0-3
Spring ÇEV 802 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Spring ÇEV 801 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Spring ÇEV 573 Agricultural Chemicals In Aquatic Ecosys... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 3-0-3
Fall CM431 Graduation Project I Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Fall İM343 Hydrology Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Fall ÇM 305 Hydraulic Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 3-0-3
Fall İNŞ 311 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering 2-2-3
Fall İNŞ 405 Water Supply and Waste Water Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering 1-2-2
Fall ÇEV 801 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Fall SEM YL Seminar Institute of Science Institute of Science 0-0-0
Fall ÇEV 573 Agricultural Chemicals In Aquatic Ecosys... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 3-0-3
Fall ÇEV 802 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Summer ÇM 305 Hydraulic Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 3-0-3
Summer ÇM226 Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-2-3
Term C.Code Course Faculty/College/Institute Department/Program T-A-C
Spring CM438 Graduation Project II Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Spring CM326 Air Pollution and Aerosols Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Spring ÇM332 Water Supply and Sewage Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-4-3
Spring MM220 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-3
Spring İNŞ 340 Hydraulics Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering 3-0-3
Spring ÇEV 573 Agricultural Chemicals In Aquatic Ecosys... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 3-0-3
Spring SEM DR Seminar I Institute of Science Institute of Science 0-0-0
Spring ÇEV 801 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Spring ÇEV 802 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Spring SEM YL Seminar Institute of Science Institute of Science 0-0-0
Fall İM343 Hydrology Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Fall IM331 Hydraulic Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-2-2
Fall CM431 Graduation Project I Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Fall İNŞ 405 Water Supply and Waste Water Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering 1-2-2
Fall ÇEV 801 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Fall ÇEV 573 Agricultural Chemicals In Aquatic Ecosys... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 3-0-3
Fall ÇEV 802 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Fall SEM YL Seminar Institute of Science Institute of Science 0-0-0
Summer MM220 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-3
Term C.Code Course Faculty/College/Institute Department/Program T-A-C
Spring CM438 Graduation Project II Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Spring ÇM332 Water Supply and Sewage Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-4-2
Spring MM220 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-2
Spring CM326 Air Pollution and Aerosols Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Spring ÇEV 573 Agricultural Chemicals In Aquatic Ecosys... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 3-0-3
Spring SEM YL Seminar Institute of Science Institute of Science 0-0-0
Spring ÇEV 801 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Spring ÇEV 802 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Fall CM431 Graduation Project I Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Fall İM343 Hydrology Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Fall İNŞ 405 Water Supply and Waste Water Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering 1-2-2
Fall IM331 Hydraulic Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-2-2
Fall SEM YL Seminar Institute of Science Institute of Science 0-0-0
Fall ÇEV 801 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Fall ÇEV 573 Agricultural Chemicals In Aquatic Ecosys... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 3-0-3
Fall ÇEV 802 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Term C.Code Course Faculty/College/Institute Department/Program T-A-C
Spring MM220 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-2
Spring CM326 Air Pollution and Aerosols Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Spring ÇM332 Water Supply and Sewage Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-4-2
Spring CM438 Graduation Project II Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Spring TEZ Thesis Institute of Science Institute of Science 0-0-0
Spring ÇEV 802 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Spring SEM YL Seminar Institute of Science Institute of Science 0-0-0
Spring ÇEV 573 Agricultural Chemicals In Aquatic Ecosys... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 3-0-3
Spring ÇEV 801 Special Topics In Environmental Engineer... Institute of Science Department of Environmental En... 4-0-0
Fall CM431 Graduation Project I Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Fall İM343 Hydrology Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Fall IM331 Hydraulic Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-2-2
Fall ÇEV-573 Agricultural Chemicals In Aquatic Ecosys... Gradute School of Natural and ... Environmental Engineering 3-0-3
Term C.Code Course Faculty/College/Institute Department/Program T-A-C
Spring CM438 Graduation Project II Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Spring CM326 Air Pollution and Aerosols Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Spring MM220 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-2
Spring ÇM332 Water Supply and Sewage Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-4-2
Spring ÇEV-573 Agricultural Chemicals In Aquatic Ecosys... Gradute School of Natural and ... Environmental Engineering 3-0-3
Fall İM343 Hydrology Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Fall CM431 Graduation Project I Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Fall IM331 Hydraulic Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-2-2
Term C.Code Course Faculty/College/Institute Department/Program T-A-C
Spring CM438 Graduation Project II Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Spring MM220 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-2
Spring ÇM330 Basic Processes II Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-4-3
Spring ÇM332 Water Supply and Sewage Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-4-2
Fall CM409 Environmental Modeling Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-2
Fall CM431 Graduation Project I Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Fall CM421 Design of Wastewater Treatment Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-4-3
Fall İM343 Hydrology Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-0-2
Fall ÇM-421 Design of Wastewater Treatment Systems Gradute School of Natural and ... Environmental Engineering 2-4-3
Term C.Code Course Faculty/College/Institute Department/Program T-A-C
Spring CM438 Graduation Project II Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Spring MM220 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-2
Spring ÇM332 Water Supply and Sewage Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-4-2
Fall CM431 Graduation Project I Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 0-2-1
Fall ÜYG101 Introduction To University Life Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-0-1
Fall CM421 Design of Wastewater Treatment Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 2-4-3
Fall CM409 Environmental Modeling Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-2
Term C.Code Course Faculty/College/Institute Department/Program T-A-C
Spring ÇM332 Water Supply and Sewage Systems Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-4-2
Spring MM220 Fluid Mechanics Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-2
Fall CM409 Environmental Modeling Faculty of Engineering Environmental Engineering 1-3-2